Arminianism was a controversial theological position within the Church of England. It rejected the doctrine of predestination and was particularly disliked by the Puritans. The name derives from Jacobus Arminius, a Dutch theologian. Arminianism in England included a support for or extension of church hierarchy, uniformity, central government powers over clerics, a retention of the liturgy and ritual.

Burials have their own terminology both in the US and England. In the US, graveyard, burial ground, and cemetery are mostly interchangeable and have been for some time, but in colonial America and in England, it’s important to remember there can be differences in these terms: graveyard; churchyard; burial ground and cemetery plus (from 1885) cremations and interments. The following terms apply to colonial and English use of the words.

A “churchyard” is the term that’s normally given to an area around a Christian church building where members of that particular faith are buried. In England, it is usually only Anglican and Catholic buildings that are called “churches” with “churchyards”, though non-conformist chapels may also be referred to non-members as “churches.”

Graveyard’ and ‘burial ground’ are more general terms used for an area of land dedicated to burials for ANY faith. They may or may not be located alongside or even near their particular religious building. Though most people would think first of the Church of England when these terms are used, all religious buildings and faiths can have a graveyard or burial ground and normally only members of that particular faith would be buried in them.

The term “cemetery” is simply another term for an area where people are buried or interred. In England it is not normally attached to a particular faith, though it can be if, for example, it’s associated with a non-Christian faith, or when a Christian church has no churchyard at all, or has run out of space and therefore creates its own cemetery. Most English cemeteries are public and civil, containing both consecrated areas (for members of the Church of England) and non-consecrated areas (for anyone else). In bigger conurbations, there is often demarcated space for non-Anglican and Jewish burials and those of other non-Christian faiths. Highgate in London, opened in 1839, is considered the oldest cemetery in England. From that date onwards, especially after the Metropolitan Burial Act of 1852, public cemeteries were opened in towns and cities throughout the country.

Private “burial grounds” and “cemeteries” also exist, belonging to individual families, communities, neighborhoods and funeral businesses. Records of these can be hard to locate.

1885 was the year of the first Christian cremation in England and crematoria are now commonplace around the country. Ashes of those cremated are either scattered or interred (with legal restrictions on where these can happen) although sometimes retained privately in urns by family members. Interments of ashes are normally made as additions to existing family graves or in crematoria grounds, and in areas of cemeteries specifically for ashes to be placed, called ‘memorial gardens’ or similar.

So a broader term is useful for describing all the options for disposal of a deceased person, both historical and modern, which is “interment“.

For more on burial practices and other details, see the full document here.

Godly was the term the puritans used for themselves, an indication they felt they were more devout and had a better way of worshiping and building a personal relationship with God.

Selectman-Member of a local governing board of a New England town. They were often tasked with communal issues such as where cattle and horses could be kept, what to do about various stray animals, determining taxes, judging fences and more.